The Strategic Missile Forces carried out the launch from the Orenburg region in the Southern Urals, striking a conventional target at a test site.
Russian Federation upgraded its military arsenal further with the successful launch of a hypersonic missile capable of traveling at up to 20 times the speed of sound and gliding across the upper atmosphere.
The Defense Ministry released footage from the test launch, in which a ballistic missile could be seen blasting from a silo in a cloud of smoke, but it hasn't released any images of the vehicle itself.
On Wednesday, Putin said that the system will be put into service next year, for which a special regiment will be formed within the Russian Strategic Missile Forces.
Russia's new strategic weapon has rendered any missile defences useless at a small fraction of their cost, officials said.
The final test comes after USA president Donald Trump announced plans to pull out of a key Cold War-era nuclear weapons pact, the three-decade-old Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (INF).
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"The Avangard gliding warhead is a re-entry vehicle created to perform erratic hypersonic manoeuvres to baffle defence systems", he said.
A smiling Ivanov likened the weapon's flight through the atmosphere to a pebble skipping off the surface of water. President Trump this year announced that the United States will exit a separate, Cold War-era treaty limiting short and intermediate-range nuclear weapons - known as the INF Treaty - because of what Washington says is a Russian violation of it.
He noted that Russian Federation has a stockpile of several dozen such missiles, which are in a factory-mint condition and not filled with fuel, allowing them to serve for a long time to come. The Avangard is a hypersonic warhead re-entry vehicle that is created to outpace and outmaneuver USA missile defense systems.
In March 2018, Putin announced the Avangard alongside other modernized Russian nuclear delivery systems, emphasizing that it was being pursued due to US pursuit of missile defense systems.
Putin has been threatening a new arms race amid fears in Russian Federation the US would not renew the New START treaty that limits the development of nuclear weapons by both countries and is due to expire in 2021.
"We aren't involved in saber-rattling, we simply ensured our security for decades to come", he said.