Saudi Arabia and Bahrain said on Saturday that Gulf states are playing a critical role in maintaining stability in the Middle East by combating Iran's "vision of darkness".
But US Defence Secretary Jim Mattis, who was also addressing the Manama forum, warned that "the murder of Jamal Khashoggi in a diplomatic facility must concern us all greatly".
Erdogan said he had spoken with Prince Mohamed.
The ministry referred the extradition request for the suspects - all of whom are Saudi nationals - to Turkish Foreign Ministry, the statement said.
Saudi Arabia, the Emirates, Bahrain and Egypt cut off travel and trade ties with Qatar in June 2017, accusing it of backing their archrival, Iran, and supporting terrorism.
"What is the link between arms sales and Khashoggi?" he said, calling it "pure demagoguery to call for a halt" to exports over the killing.
Benchmark crudes fall as stockpiles rise, stock market drops
Exports have declined already to about 1.5 million barrels per day (bpd), up to 1 million bpd below levels seen earlier this year. There has been indication that India may not totally stop import of crude oil from Iran .
Mr Erdogan added that the Saudi officials who killed the journalist in their Istanbul consulate must reveal the location of his body as he sharply criticised the kingdom's handling of the case.
Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor on Thursday said the killing of Khashoggi was premeditated, contradicting a previous official statement that it happened accidentally during a tussle in the consulate. "The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has strategic relations with the United States that goes back to the 1930's, it was enshrined by a meeting with the late King Abdulaziz and late Franklin Roosevelt".
Cengiz said she waited outside the consulate for Khashoggi for more than 10 hours.
However, he ultimately assumed he would not be arrested or harmed because he was in Turkey.
She said she had not been contacted by Saudi officials and that she was unlikely to go to Saudi Arabia for a possible funeral if Khashoggi's missing body is found.
But Saudi Arabia's top diplomat said Saturday that the global outrage over the killing has become "hysterical", though noting that the real culprits will be brought to justice.
"It was carried out poorly and the cover-up was one of the worst in the history of cover-ups", Trump said. The Saudi-US citizen had been barred from leaving Saudi Arabia because of his father's criticism of the country's leadership, but this sanction was recently lifted.